Abstract：Graphene is a kind of two-dimensional atomic crystal with one atomic layer, which is the basic structure unit of other dimensions of graphite materials, such as zero dimensional fullerenes, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes and three-dimensional graphite. Graphene has a lot of unique electronic and mechanical properties, which have attracted high attention of many scientists in the field of chemistry, materials and other fields. Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive and convenient characterization method, has played a very important role in the study of graphene. Raman spectroscopy is an integral part of graphene research. The application of Raman spectroscopy in graphene characterization in recent years is reviewed in this paper. The characteristic peak of monolayer graphene was first intnduced. Then, through the analysis of the changes of D peak, G peak and 2D peak intensity, position and half peak width of Raman spectra, the number of graphene layers can be quickly and accurately characterized, as well as, the stacking orders, edge chirality and doping degree of graphene were defined. At the same time, the effects of substrate, doping, temperature and laser power on the intensity, position and half width of D peak, G peak and 2D peak of Raman spectra in the process of preparing graphene were also systematically analyzed.
郝欢欢, 刘晶冰, 李坤威, 汪浩, 严辉. 拉曼光谱表征石墨烯结构的研究进展[J]. 材料工程, 2018, 46(5): 1-10.
HAO Huan-huan, LIU Jing-bing, LI Kun-wei, WANG Hao, YAN Hui. Research Progress on Characterization of Graphene Structure by Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Materials Engineering, 2018, 46(5): 1-10.
 WALLACE P R.The band theory of graphite[J].Physical Review,1947,71(9):622-634.
 MCCLURE J W.Diamagnetism of graphite[J].Physical Review,1956,104(3):666-671.
 NOVOSELOV K S,GEIM A K,MOROZOV S V,et al.Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films[J].Science,2004,306(5696):666-669.
 MEYER J C,GEIM A K,KATSNELSON M I,et al.The structure of suspended graphene sheets[J].Nature,2007,446(7131):60-63.
 GEIM A K,NOVOSELOV K S.The rise of graphene[J].Nature Materials,2007,6(3):183-191.
 SHIN D,BAE S K,YAN C,et al.Synthesis and applications of graphene electrodes[J].Carbon Letters,2012,13(1):1-16.
 ZHANG Y B,TAN Y W,STORMER H L,et al.Experimental observation of quantum hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene[J].Nature,2005,438(7065):1-7.
 YANG H,HEO J,PARK S,et al.Graphene barrister,a triode device with a gate-controlled Schottky barrier[J].Science,2012,336(6085):1140-1143.
 LU J M,ZHANG H J,WU S,et al.Graphene magnetoresistance device in van der Pauw geometry[J].Nano Letters,2011,11(7):2973-2977.
 ZHU Y,SUN Z Z,YAN Z,et al.Rational design of hybrid graphene films for high-performance transparent electrodes[J].Acs Nano,2011,5(8):6472-6479.
 ARCO L G D,ZHANG Y,SCHLENKER C W,et al.Continuous,highly flexible,and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics[J].Acs Nano,2010,4(5):2865-2873.
 WU C H,SHEN Q,DENG S X,et al.Preparation of novel three-dimensional NiO/ultrathin derived graphene hybrid for supercapacitor applications[J].ACS Applied Materials&Interfaces,2014,6(2):1106-1112.
 WU C H,SHEN Q,MI R,et al.Three-dimensional Co3O4/flocculent graphene hybrid on Ni foam for supercapacitor applications[J].Journal of Materials Chemistry A,2014,2(38):15987-15994.
 FERRARI A C,MEYER J C,SCARDACI V,et al.Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers[J].Physical Review Letters,2006,97(18):13831-13840.
 KUZMANY H,PFEIFFER R,HULMAN M,et al.Raman spectroscopy of fullerenes and fullerene-nanotube composites[J].Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A Mathematical Physical&Engineering Sciences,2004,362(1824):2375-2406.
 DRESSELHAUS M S,DRESSELHAUS G,JORIO A,et al.Raman spectroscopy on isolated single wall carbon nanotubes[J].Carbon,2002,40(12):2043-2061.
 FERRARI A C,ROBERTSON J.Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered,amorphous,and diamondlike carbon[J].Physical Review B Condensed Matter,2001,64(7):075414-1-075414-13.
 MI R,LIU H,WANG H,et al.Effects of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes on the discharge performance of Li-air batteries[J].Carbon,2014,67(2):744-752.
 FERRARI A C,BASKO D M.Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene[J].Nature Nanotechnology,2013,8(4):235-246.
 MALARD L M,NILSSON J,ELIAS D C,et al.Probing the electronic structure of bilayer graphene by Raman scattering[J].Physical Review B Condensed Matter,2007,76(20):1401-1-1401-4.
 FERRARI A C,ROBERTSON J.Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon[J].Physical Review B Condensed Matter,2000,61(20):14095-14107.
 DAS A,PISANA S,CHAKRABORTY B,et al.Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor[J].Nature Nanotechnology,2008,3(4):210-215.
 GRAF D,MOLITOR F,ENSSLIN K,et al.Spatially resolved raman spectroscopy of single-and few-layer graphene[J].Nano Letters,2007,7(2):238-242.
 FERRARI A C.Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite:Disorder,electron-phonon coupling,doping and nonadiabatic effects[J].Solid State Communications,2007,143(1/2):47-57.
 YAN J,ZHANG Y B,KIM P,et al.Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene[J].Physical Review Letters,2007,98(16):166802-1-166802-4.
 TUINSTRA F,KOENIG J L.Raman spectrum of graphite[J].Journal of Chemical Physics,1970,53(3):1126-1130.
 THOMSEN C,REICH S.Double resonant raman scattering in graphite[J].Physical Review Letters,2001,85(24):5214-5217.
 GARCIA S,MARIN A.Determination of LA and TO phonon dispersion relations of graphene near the Dirac point by double resonance Raman scattering[J].Physical Review B,2007,76(23):233407-1-233407-4.
 FERRARI A C,ROBERTSON J.Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon[J].Physical Review B,2000,61(20):14095-14107.
 NEMANICH R J,SOLIN S A.First-and second-order Raman scattering from finite-size crystals of graphite[J].Physical Review B,1979,20(2):392-401.
 GUPTA A,CHEN G,JOSHI P,et al.Raman scattering from high-frequency phonons in supported n-graphene layer films letters[J].Nano Letters,2006,6(12):2667-2673.
 NI Z H,WANG Y Y,YU T,et al.Raman spectroscopy and imaging of grapheme[J].Nano Research,2008,1(4):273-291.
 DAS A,CHAKRABORTY B,SOOD A K.Raman spectroscopy of graphene on different substrates and influence of defects[J].Bulletin of Materials Science,2007,31(3):579-584.
 PONCHARAL P,AYARI A,MICHEL T,et al.Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene[J].Physical Review B Condensed Matter,2008,78(11):113407-1-113407-8.
 LOPES D S J M B,PERES N M R,CASTRO NETO A H.Graphene bilayer with a twist:electronic structure[J].Physical Review Letters,2008,99(25):256802-1-256802-4.
 MAK K F,SHAN J,HEINZ T F.Electronic structure of few-layer graphene:experimental demonstration of strong dependence on stacking sequence[J].Physical Review Letters,2010,104(17):39-87.
 NGUYEN T A,LEE J U,YOON D,et al.Excitation energy dependent Raman signatures of ABA-and ABC-stacked few-layer graphene[J].Scientific Reports,2014,4(7):4630-1-4630-5.
 LUI C H,LI Z,MAK K F,et al.Observation of an electrically tunable band gap in trilayer graphene[J].Nature Physics,2011,7(12):944-947.
 KIM M,CHOI S M,YOON H A,et al.Photocurrent generation at ABA/ABC lateral junction in tri-layer graphene photodetector[J].Carbon,2016,96:454-458.
 LUI C H,LI Z,CHEN Z,et al.Imaging stacking order in few-layer graphene[J].Nano Letters,2010,11(1):164-169.
 CONG C X,YU T,SATO K,et al.Raman characterization of ABA-and ABC-stacked trilayer grapheme[J].Acs Nano,2011,5(11):8760-8768.
 YAN J A,RUAN W Y,CHOU M Y.Phonon dispersions and vibrational properties of monolayer,bilayer,and trilayer graphene:density-functional perturbation theory[J].Physical Review B Condensed Matter,2009,77(12):125401-1-125401-8.
 吴娟霞,徐华,张锦.拉曼光谱在石墨烯结构表征中的应用[J].化学学报,2014,72(3):301-318.WU J X,XU H,ZHANG J.Raman spectroscopy of graphene[J].Acta Chimca Sinica,2014,72(3):301-318.
 YOU Y M,NI Z H,YU T,et al.Edge chirality determination of graphene by Raman spectroscopy[J].Applied Physics Letters,2008,93(16):163112-1-1613112-3.
 ZHANG X,LI Q Q,HAN W P,et al.Raman identification of edge alignment of bilayer graphene down to the nanometer scale[J].Nanoscale,2014,6(13):7519-7525.
 BEGLIARBEKOV M,SUL O,KALLIAKOS S,et al.Determination of edge purity in bilayer graphene using micro-Raman spectroscopy[J].Applied Physics Letters,2010,97(3):031908-1-031908-3.
 CONG C X,YU T,WANG H M.Raman study on the g mode of graphene for determination of edge orientation[J].Acs Nano,2010,4(6):3175-3180.
 ZHANG C H,FU L,LIU N,et al.Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene using embedded carbon and nitrogen sources[J].Advanced Materials,2011,23(8):1020-1024.
 HU G X.Raman spectroscopic characterization of graphene[J].Applied Spectroscopy Reviews,2010,45(1):369-407.
 PANCHAKARLA L S,SUBRAHMANYAM K S,SAHA S K,et al.Synthesis,structure and properties of boron and nitrogen doped graphene[J].Advanced Materials,2009,21(46):4726-4730.
 LIU L,RYU S,TOMASIK M R,et al.Graphene oxidation:Thickness-dependent etching and strong chemical doping[J].Nano Letters,2008,8(7):1965-1970.
 CANCADO L G,TAKAI K,ENOKI T,et al.General equation for the determination of the crystallite size La of nanographite by Raman spectroscopy[J].Applied Physics Letters,2006,88(16):163106-1163106-3.
 WANG Y Y,NI Z H,YU T,et al.Raman studies of monolayer graphene:the substrate effect[J].Journal of Physical Chemistry C,2008,112(29):10637-10640.
 CASIRAGHI C,PISANA S,NOVOSELOV K S,et al.Raman fingerprint of charged impurities in graphene[J].Applied Physics Letters,2007,91(23):233108-1-233108-3.
 CALIZO I,BAO W Z,MIAO F,et al.Graphene-on-sapphire and graphene-on-glass:Raman spectroscopy study[J].Physics,2007,91(20):201904-1-201904-9.
 CALIZO I,TEWELDEBRHAN D,BAO W Z,et al.Spectroscopic Raman nanometrology of graphene and graphene multilayers on arbitrary substrates[J].Journal of Physics Conference Series,2008,109(1):012008-1-012008-4.
 OHTA T,BOSTWICK A,SEYLLER T,et al.Controlling the electronic structure of bilayer graphene[J].Science,2006,313(5789):951-954.
 VARCHON F,FENG R,HASS J,et al.Electronic structure of epitaxial graphene layers on SiC:effect of the substrate[J].Physical Review Letters,2007,99(12):126805-1-126905-5.
 CELEBI C,YANIK C,DEMIRKOL A G,et al.The effect of a SiC cap on the growth of epitaxial graphene on SiC in ultra high vacuum[J].Carbon,2012,50(8):3026-3031.
 NI Z H,CHEN W,FAN X F,et al.Raman spectroscopy of epitaxial graphene on a SiC substrate[J].Physical Review B,2008,77(11):115416-1-115416-20.
 ABDULA D,OZEL T,KANG K,et al.Environment-induced effects on the temperature dependence of Raman spectra of single-layer graphene[J].Journal of Physical Chemistry C,2008,112(51):20131-20134.
 CALIZO I,MIAO F,BAO W,et al.Variable temperature Raman microscopy as a nanometrology tool for graphene layers and graphene-based devices[J].Applied Physics Letters,2007,91(7):071913-1-071913-3.
 CALIZO I,BALANDIN A A,BAO W Z,et al.Temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of graphene and graphene multilayers[J].Nano Letters,2007,7(9):2645-2649.
 CALIZO I,LAU C N.Raman nanometrology of graphene on arbitrary substrates and at variable temperature[J].Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering,2008,7037:70371B-1-70371B-8.
 ZHOU H Q,QIU C Y,YU F,et al.Raman scattering of monolayer graphene:the temperature and oxygen doping effects[J].Journal of Physics D Applied Physics,2011,44(18):237-251.
 LATE D J,MAITRA U,PANCHAKARLA L S,et al.Temperature effects on the Raman spectra of graphenes:dependence on the number of layers and doping[J].Journal of Physics Condensed Matter,2011,23(5):55303-55307.
 CANCADO L G,JORIO A,FERREIRA E H M,et al.Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies[J].Nano Letters,2011,11(8):3190-3196.
 PARK J S,REINA A,SAITO R,et al.G'band Raman spectra of single,double and triple layer grapheme[J].Carbon,2009,47(5):1303-1310.
 MAFRA D L,SAMSONIDZE G G,MALARD L M,et al.Deterination of LA and TO phonon dispersion relations of grapehene near the Dirac point by double resonance Raman scattering[J].Physical Review B,2007,76(23):233407-1-233407-4.
 MALARD L M,PIMENTA M A,DRESSELHAUS G,et al.Raman spectroscopy in graphene[J].Physics Reports,2009,473(5):51-87.
 POCSIK I,HUNDHAUSEN M,KOOS M,et al.Origin of the D peak in the Raman spectrum of microcrystalline graphite[J].Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids,1998,227/230(1):1083-1086.
 CALIZO I,GHOSH S,BAO W Z,et al.Raman nanometrology of graphene:temperature and substrate effects[J].Solid State Communications,2009,149(27/28):1132-1135.
 杰米.石墨烯:基础及新兴应用[M].北京:科学出版社,2014:199.WARNER J H.Graphene:fundamentals and emergent application[M].Beijing:Science Press,2014:199.