Abstract：Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are inevitable for most cancer patients, but these treatments also cause great damage to the body of humans.However fluorescent nanomaterials have the advantages of high fluorescence stability, low biotoxicity, and good biocompatibility, the most important thing is that it can perform non-invasive targeted therapy through its own peculiarity to avoid the harm of the above therapy to the human body. Therefore, fluorescent materials will be particularly important in biological applications. As a new type of carbon nanomaterial, carbon dot has excellent light stability and fluorescence performance, good biocompatibility, low toxicity and so on,which can be applied to biosensors, bioimaging and biomedical applications. This review will express the preparation of carbon dots, the mechanism of luminescence and the application of biology, and focus on the application of carbon dots in biological diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the combination of carbon dots with specific targeting molecules to form carbons that detect fluorescent signals, by means of advanced optical imaging technology, which can perform real-time dynamic monitoring of intracellular and biological molecules, perform rapid immunofluorescence analysis of major infectious disease sources, and provide new technologies and methods for disease occurrence, diagnosis, and treatment research.
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