1 School of Shipping and Mechatronic Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 225300, Jiangsu, China 2 Taizhou Branch of Jiangsu Special Equipment Safety Supervision and Inspection Research Institute, Taizhou 225300, Jiangsu, China 3 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, China
Multilayer graphene(MLG) and MLG/Fe2O3composite nanomaterials were prepared by liquid-phase stripping. The prepared MLG, MLG/Fe2O3composite nanomaterials and MLG+Fe2O3mechanically mixed nanomaterials were directly added onto the titanium alloy/steel sliding interface. Subsequently, the dry sliding friction and wear tests were performed, and the friction and wear behavior of TC11 alloys was measured. The X-ray diffractometer, laser Raman spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, 3D laser scanning microscopy and energy spectrometer were employed to analyze the structure, morphology and component of the worn surface and subsurface for TC11 alloys. The results show that, as for the single additive of MLG, the variation tendency of wear loss and friction coefficient for TC11 alloy is similar to that without any additives. There is only Ti and no other phases on the worn surface. The characteristics of adhesive wear and abrasive wear are presented, which are manifested as plastic tearing, adhesive traces and furrows. Underneath the tribo-layer, there exist a plastic layer, which means that TC11 alloy substrate suffers a plastic deformation during sliding. When MLG/Fe2O3composite nanomaterials and MLG+Fe2O3mechanically mixed nanomaterials are selected as the additives, the wear loss and friction coefficient invariably maintain extremely low values and close to zero, in a certain range of sliding revolutions. There retain the phases of MLG and Fe2O3 on the worn surface. The typical black regions and grey regions are observed, and the tribo-layers are presented a double-layer structure. With an increase of cycles to 25000, the double-layer tribo-layer form with the addition of composite nanomaterials disappear, and the severe wear appears. However, as for the addition of mechanically mixed nanomaterials, the double-layer tribo-layer steadily exists. Therefore, the single addition of MLG is unable to improve the friction and wear properties of titanium alloy. With an addition of MLG to the Fe2O3-contained tribo-layer, a new tribo-layer, i.e. double-layer tribo-layer is formed. This layer simultaneously possesses lubrication and bearing function, resulting in a significant improvement for the friction reduction and wear resistance of titanium alloys. Especially, the titanium alloys present more excellent tribological properties with the addition of mechanically mixed nanomaterials, because of more layers and higher content of MLG in the double-layer tribo-layer.
LIU J Q , LIU J , TANG Y J , et al. Research progress in titanium alloy in the field of orthopaedic implants[J]. Journal of Materials Engineering, 2021, 49 (8): 11- 25.
LEYENS C , PETERS M . Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications[M]. Springer: Verlag, 2003.
STRAFFELINI G , MOLINARI A . Mild sliding wear of Fe-0.2%C, Ti-6%Al-4%V and Al-7072: a comparative study[J]. Tribo-logy Letters, 2011, 41 (1): 227- 238.
QIU M , ZHANG Y Z , YANG J H , et al. Microstructural and tribological characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy against GCr15 under high speed and dry sliding[J]. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2006, 434 (1/2): 71- 75.
LI X X , WANG H X , SHI J F , et al. Formation and function of protective tribo-oxide layers on TC11 titanium alloy surface[J]. Journal of Materials Engineering, 2020, 48 (10): 141- 147.
WANG L , ZHANG Q Y , LI X X , et al. Dry sliding wear behavior of Ti-6.5Al-3.5Mo-1.5Zr-0.3Si alloy[J]. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2014, 45 (4): 2284- 2296.
WANG L , ZHANG Q Y , LI X X , et al. Severe-to-mild wear transition of titanium alloys as a function of temperature[J]. Tribology Letters, 2014, 53 (3): 511- 520.
LI X X , ZHANG Q Y , ZHOU Y , et al. Severe and mild wear of titanium alloys[J]. Tribology Letters, 2016, 61 (2): 1- 9.
ZHANG Q Y , ZHOU Y , LI X X , et al. Accelerated formation of tribo-oxide layer and its effect on sliding wear of a titanium alloy[J]. Tribology Letters, 2016, 63 (1): 1- 13.
KANDANUR S S , RAFIEE M A , YAVARI F , et al. Suppression of wear in graphene polymer composites[J]. Carbon, 2012, 50 (9): 3178- 3183.
WANG H , XIE G Y , ZHU Z G , et al. Enhanced tribological performance of the multi-layer graphene filled poly(vinyl chloride) composites[J]. Composites Part: A, 2014, 67, 268- 273.
GUTIERREZ-GONZALEZ C F , SMIRNOV A , CENTENO A , et al. Wear behavior of graphene/alumina composite[J]. Cera-mics International, 2015, 41 (6): 7434- 7438.
LLORENTE J , ROMAN-MANSO B , MIRANZO P , et al. Tribological performance under dry sliding conditions of graphene/silicon carbide composites[J]. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 2016, 36 (3): 429- 435.
ZHAI W Z , SHI X L , WANG M , et al. Grain refinement: a mechanism for graphene nanoplatelets to reduce friction and wear of Ni3Al matrix self-lubricating composites[J]. Wear, 2014, 310 (1/2): 33- 40.
ZHAI W Z , SHI X L , YAO J , et al. Investigation of mechanical and tribological behaviors of multilayer graphene reinforced Ni3Al matrix composites[J]. Composites Part: B, 2015, 70, 149- 155.
XU Z S , SHI X L , ZHAI W Z , et al. Preparation and tribological properties of TiAl matrix composites reinforced by multilayer graphene[J]. Carbon, 2014, 67, 168- 177.
QIAO Y L , ZHAO H C , ZANG Y , et al. Friction and wear pro-perties of water-dispersing system of multilayer grapheme[J]. Tribology, 2014, 34 (5): 523- 530.
PORWAL H , TATARKO P , SAGGAR R , et al. Tribological properties of silica-graphene nano-platelet composites[J]. Ceramics International, 2014, 40 (8): 12067- 12074.
GUIDERDONI C , PAVLENKO E , TURQ V , et al. The preparation of carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper composites and the effect of the number of CNT walls on their hardness, friction and wear properties[J]. Carbon, 2013, 58 (2): 185- 197.
KATO H . Effects of supply of fine oxide particles onto rubbing steel surfaces on severe-mild wear transition and oxide film formation[J]. Tribology International, 2008, 41 (41): 735- 742.
KATO H , KOMAI K . Tribofilm formation and mild wear by tribo-sintering of nanometer-sized oxide particles on rubbing steel surfaces[J]. Wear, 2007, 262 (1/2): 36- 41.
FENG X , KWON S , PARK J Y , et al. Superlubric sliding of graphene nanoflakes on graphene[J]. ACS Nano, 2013, 7 (2): 1718- 1724.
FILLETER T , MCCHESNEY J L , BOSTWICK A , et al. Friction and dissipation in epitaxial graphene films[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2009, 102 (8): 086102.
LEE C , LI Q , KALB W , et al. Frictional characteristics of atomically thin sheets[J]. Science, 2010, 328 (5974): 76- 80.