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2222材料工程  2023, Vol. 51 Issue (1): 52-63    DOI: 10.11868/j.issn.1001-4381.2022.000322
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搅拌摩擦沉积增材技术研究进展
陈刚1, 武凯1,*(), 孙宇1, 贾贺鹏1, 朱志雄2, 胡峰峰2
1 南京理工大学 机械工程学院, 南京 210094
2 航天工程装备(苏州)有限公司, 江苏 苏州 215200
Research progress in additive friction stir deposition
Gang CHEN1, Kai WU1,*(), Yu SUN1, Hepeng JIA1, Zhixiong ZHU2, Fengfeng HU2
1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
2 Aerospace Engineering Equipment (Suzhou) Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215200, Jiangsu, China
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摘要 

搅拌摩擦沉积增材(additive friction stir deposition,AFSD)技术是一种新兴固相增材制造技术,采用金属棒材、粉材、丝材为增材材料,增材过程中依靠增材材料与板材摩擦产生摩擦热以及材料剧烈变形产生的塑性变形热形成黏塑性沉积层,沉积层逐层堆积形成三维实体结构件;基于其固相特征,具有熔覆增材技术不可比拟的优势,目前已成为增材制造领域的研究热点。本文从设备研制、微观组织演变、材料流动特性、力学性能变化四个方面综述了AFSD技术最新国内外研究进展;分析了该技术应用于工程实际的可行性,展望了在增材制造、材料修复、零件加固、制造金属涂层领域的应用前景;最后指出了产热机制、材料流动特性、辅助优化工艺、智能化设备研制等为未来的研究方向。

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陈刚
武凯
孙宇
贾贺鹏
朱志雄
胡峰峰
关键词 搅拌摩擦沉积增材微观组织演变材料流动特性力学性能变化    
Abstract

The additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) technology is a new solid-state additive manufacturing technology. The metal bars, powders, and wires are used as feedstock. During the additive process, the friction heat generated by the friction between feedstock and the plate and the plastic deformation heat generated by the severe deformation of feedstock form a viscoplastic deposition layer. The deposition layer is stacked layer by layer to form three-dimensional parts. Because of its solid phase characteristics, it has many advantages over fused-based metal additive technologies and has become a research hotspot in the field of additive manufacturing. In this paper, the latest research progress of AFSD technology at home and abroad was reviewed from four aspects of equipment development, microstructure evolution, material flow characteristics and mechanical properties change. The feasibility of the application of this technology in engineering practice was analyzed and the application prospect in the field of metal coating reinforcement for material repair parts of additive manufacturing was forecasted. Finally, it was pointed out that the heat generation mechanism, material flow characteristics, auxiliary optimization process, and intelligent equipment development are the future research directions.

Key wordsadditive friction stir deposition    microstructure evolution    material flow characteristics    mechanical properties change
收稿日期: 2022-04-19      出版日期: 2023-01-16
中图分类号:  TG44  
基金资助:江苏省科技成果转化专项项目(BA2019029);苏州市重点研发产业化重点项目(SGC201914)
通讯作者: 武凯     E-mail: wukai@njust.edu.cn
作者简介: 武凯(1972-), 男, 教授, 博士, 研究方向为先进机械装备的设计与制造技术、CAD/CAE/CAM技术、机械装备的可靠性设计与制造技术等, 联系地址: 江苏省南京市孝陵卫200号南京理工大学机械工程学院(210094), E-mail: wukai@njust.edu.cn
引用本文:   
陈刚, 武凯, 孙宇, 贾贺鹏, 朱志雄, 胡峰峰. 搅拌摩擦沉积增材技术研究进展[J]. 材料工程, 2023, 51(1): 52-63.
Gang CHEN, Kai WU, Yu SUN, Hepeng JIA, Zhixiong ZHU, Fengfeng HU. Research progress in additive friction stir deposition. Journal of Materials Engineering, 2023, 51(1): 52-63.
链接本文:  
http://jme.biam.ac.cn/CN/10.11868/j.issn.1001-4381.2022.000322      或      http://jme.biam.ac.cn/CN/Y2023/V51/I1/52
Fig.1  工作原理图[7-8]
(a)搅拌摩擦焊;(b)摩擦堆焊;(c)棒料搅拌摩擦沉积增材;(d)粉材或丝材搅拌摩擦沉积增材
Fig.2  MELD公司搅拌摩擦沉积固相增材设备[17]
(a)AFSD设备B8;(b)AFSD设备L3
Fig.3  天津大学搅拌摩擦沉积固相增材设备和实验成果[22]
(a)AFSD设备;(b)AFSD实验成果A;(c)AFSD实验成果B
Feed material Tool rotation rate/(r·min-1) Travel velocity/(mm·min-1) Material feed rate/(mm·min-1) Grain size/μm Micro-hardness(HV) Reference
6061 300-420 127-229 66-122 15±4 112±2.65 [23]
AA2024 300 152.4 50.8 1-2 [24]
Ti-6AL-4V 325-350 79-127 40.4-44.7 26-64 325-335 [25]
AA2024 300 120 51 4.9 [26]
6061 200/600 60/180 20/60 10-16 45.4-67.3 [27]
Cu 300/600 60/180 20/60 10-27 38-72.7 [27]
6061 300 127 69.9 9.1±5.8 64 [28]
7075 220-360 50.8-177.8 50.8-94.0 55-135 [29]
2219 200 101.6 88.9 8.3 83 [30]
7075 225 50.8 50.8 4.33 60-105 [31]
6061 325 78 126-204 5-25 105.2 [32]
SS304 1000 360 45 3.6-4.2 [33]
Aermet 100 375-600 38.1-121.92 17.78-109.73 364-832 [34]
316L 440 2.5 25 32±0.9 [35]
WE43 325-350 101.6-152.4 50.8-63.5 2.7±2 81±3.8 [36]
Table 1  AFSD工艺参数总结
Fig.4  晶界图和晶粒取向差图[23-24]
(a)慢主轴横向移动速度和慢增材材料进给速度对应的晶粒取向差图;(b)慢主轴横向移动速度和慢增材材料进给速度对应的晶界图;(c)快主轴横向移动速度和快增材材料进给速度对应的晶粒取向差图;(d)快主轴横向移动速度和快增材材料进给速度对应的晶界图;(e) AA2024铝合金晶粒取向差图(小角度晶界(LAGB)定义为取向差2°到10°用红线表示,大角度晶界(HAGB)被定义为取向差大于10°用黑线表示)
Fig.5  材料流动轨迹图像[26-27]
(a)基于X射线计算机断层扫描的AA2024沉积在AA6061基板上的俯视图;(b)增材层材料向上流动图解;(c)Al-Mg-Si在AFSD过程中的材料流动;(d)Cu在AFSD过程中的材料流动
Technique Characteristics of material flow Reference
FSW Material flow is mainly concentrated around the stirring pin [41-44]
Material is subjected to lateral constraints imposed by workpieces
FS From the advancing side to the retreating side and terminates at the center [46]
The flow in the top layers is influenced by the rotation of the consumable rod and the flow at the bottom layers is influenced by substrate
AFSD The deposited material without mechanical constraint in the lateral direction [26]
The deposited material upward flow after flow from the tool shoulder surface
Table 2  材料流动特性总结
Fig.6  AFSD技术制造的零件及部分应用领域[17, 32, 39, 51]
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