Research progress of metal solid phase additive manufacturing based on friction stir
Lei SHI1,2,*(), Yang LI1, Yichen XIAO1, Chuansong WU1, Huijie LIU2
1 Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China 2 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Solid phase additive manufacturing based on friction stir is a new technology for manufacturing of large lightweight alloy components, which has become one of the hot research topics in advanced manufacturing field at home and abroad.The research status of metal solid phase additive manufacturing technology based on friction stir and related process mechanism were analyzed and summarized. The solid phase additive manufacturing technology based on friction stir can be divided into three categories.One is friction stir additive manufacturing(FSAM), which is based on the principle of friction stir lap welding, the plates are stacked layer by layer. Another is additive friction stir deposition(AFSD) technology, which usually uses a hollow tool to conduct AFSD by additive powder or wire through the hollow.The third one is friction surfacing deposition additive manufacturing (FSD-AM) technology, which is based on the principle of friction surfacing by using a rotating consumable bar to deposit materials to form the designed components. The research and application status of solid phase additive manufacturing technology of metal materials based on friction stir were analyzed, and the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of three kinds of solid phase additive manufacturing technology based on friction stir were compared.Finally, the future research direction of solid phase additive manufacturing technology based on friction stir was proposed, including revealing their process mechanism, integrated controlling of the formation and property of the AM components, modifying the process assisted with second energy, application of new materials and optimization with artificial intelligence, etc.
石磊, 李阳, 肖亦辰, 武传松, 刘会杰. 基于搅拌摩擦的金属固相增材制造研究进展[J]. 材料工程, 2022, 50(1): 1-14.
Lei SHI, Yang LI, Yichen XIAO, Chuansong WU, Huijie LIU. Research progress of metal solid phase additive manufacturing based on friction stir. Journal of Materials Engineering, 2022, 50(1): 1-14.
No-melting of the base materials and the feeding material, without flux or shielding gas, no fumes
Green manufacturing technologies, eliminate the majority of fusion-based defects, lower energy consumption, broad material range, can easily fabricate multi-material and functionally graded materials, higher lateral strength as compared to fusion-based AM, high deposition rate, without flux or shielding gas, low distortion
Lower dimensional accuracy, necessary of materials subtractive process, difficulty in utilizing in complex structure
Melting of the base and filling materials, with flux or shielding gas or under vacuum conditions
Flexibility, suitable for small, accurate and intricate parts when using laser as heating source, lower costs for small-lot manufacturing
Porosity, cracking, delamination and loss of alloying elements
A non-consumable tool is inserted into the stack of overlapping plates and friction stir lap welding is carried out along the defined direction with optimum process parameters. These steps are then repeated up to the desired build layer
A tool with inside hole is used during AFSD. Material addition in the form of metal powder or a solid rod takes place from the inside hole of a non-consumable tool. The material from the inside hole is deposited over the substrate or pre-deposited layer
Aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, metal matrix composite, etc
A consumable tool is utilized for depositing surface coating layers by metallurgical bonding via frictional heating. Material deposited from the consumable rod over the desired area takes place as the tool traverse
Stainless steel, aluminum alloys, etc
Table 2 三类基于搅拌摩擦的固相增材制造工艺原理与典型应用材料情况
Fig.5 基于搅拌摩擦的固相增材制造与熔融增材制造的对比[10, 17]
AM technology based on friction stir
Friction stir tool
Conventional or stationary shoulder FSW tool
Broadened alloy space, no requirement of filler, engineering microstructure possible
Requires special fixtures, susceptible to defects like hooking, low manufacturing efficiency and necessary of material substrate process
Tool with inside hole
Purely additive in nature, both powders and metal rods can be used as initial material, good lateral strength, high deposition rate
Complex design of tool, dependence on machine variables
Excellent tensile strength, no requirement of filler, high deposition rate, high layer thickness
Unbonded regions at boundaries, reduced mass transfer efficiency
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