Effect of Sb2O3 Modified by Various Surface Active Agents on Flame Retardant Properties of PVC Composite
XU Jian-lin1,2, ZHOU Sheng-gang1,2, NIU Lei1,2, YANG Wen-long1,2, WANG Cheng-cheng1,2, WEN Chen1,2
1. State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China;
2. Wenzhou Research Institute of Pump and Valve Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Wenzhou 325105, Zhejiang, China
Abstract：Sb2O3 powders were prepared by high energy ball milling using polyethyleneglycol-6000,sodium dodecyl sulfate and OP-10 to modify the surface properties of the powder. The influence of Sb2O3 powders modified by various surface active agents on flame retardant properties of PVC composite materials was studied. The phase composition, morphology and the average particle size of the powders were characterized by XRD and TEM. The particle distribution and flame retardant properties of Sb2O3/PVC composite materials were studied by EDS, limiting oxygen index instrument and vertical burning test. The results show that nanometer Sb2O3 has good dispersion in the PVC matrix because of the higher space steric effect of organic film on the surface of nanometer Sb2O3 when polyethyleneglycol-6000 was used as the surface active agent. While the content of nanometer Sb2O3 is 1.26% in the PVC composite material, the oxygen index of the composite material is 27.1% and the composite material reaches fire retardant grade. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate and OP-10 as surface dispersants, the surface of Sb2O3 powders can not be coated completely. The particle size of Sb2O3 powders are 100nm and 150nm, respectively, The Sb2O3 powders have poor dispersion in the PVC matrix, and even some agglomerating phenomena took place. The oxygen index of Sb2O3/PVC composite materials are 24.7% and 25.3%, respectively, containing 1.26% Sb2O3 powders in Sb2O3/PVC composite material. The materials don't achieve flame retardant level.
KIM H W,KIM H S,NA H G,et al. Growth of Sb2O3 sub-micron rods by the thermal evaporation of a mixture of Zn and Sb powders[J]. Ceramics International,2011,37(2):593-598.
司明明,郝建薇,徐利时,等. 纳米三氧化二锑阻燃应用分析[J].中国塑料,2013,27(8):1-7. SI M M,HAO J W,XU L S,et al. Analysis of nano-Sb2O3 in flame retardancy application[J]. China Plastics,2013,27(8):1-7.
CHEN X S,XU G Z,ZHANG S,et al. Improving the flame retardancy of the polypropylene/aramid fiber composites by the introduction of decabromodiphenyl ethane and antimony trioxide[J]. Journal of Applied Polymer Science,2013,127(2):1446-1453.
LI N,XIA Y,MAO Z W,et al. Influence of antimony oxide on flammability of polypropylene/intumescent flame retardant system[J]. Polymer Degradation and Stability,2012,97(9):1737-1744.
QU H Q,WU W H,ZHENG Y J,et al. Synergistic effects of inorganic tin compounds and Sb2O3 on the thermal properties and flame retardancy of flexible poly(vinyl-chloride)[J]. Fire Safety Journal,2011,46(7):462-467.
MIRDAMADIAN Z,GHANBARI D. Synergistic effect between Sb2O3 nanopartics-trichloromelamine and carbon nanotube on the flame retardancy and thermal stability of the cellulose acetate[J]. J Clust Sci,2014,(25):925-936.
SI M M,FENG J,HAO J W,et al. Synergistic flame retardant effects and mechanisms of nano-Sb2O3 in combination with aluminum phosphinate in poly(ethylene terephthalate)[J]. Polymer Degradation and Stability,2014,100:70-78.
赵倩,谷晓昱,王华进,等. 聚氯乙烯(PVC)的阻燃与抑烟研究进展[J].高分子通报,2013,(4):193-198. ZHAO Q,GU X Y,WANG H J,et al. Advances in the flame retardants and smoke suppressants used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)[J]. Polymer Bulletin,2013,(4):193-198.
李江峰,杨保俊,王百年,等. 纳米粒铁酸镁对软PVC阻燃性能的影响[J].安徽化工,2011,37(5):26-28. LI J F,YANG B J,WANG B N,et al. Study of flame retardant property of flexible PVC added with nano magnesium ferrite[J]. Anhui Chemical Industry,2011,37(5):26-28.
DU G X,DING H,WANG B K,et al. Surface modification of super-fine magnesium hydroxide powder and it's flame-retardant treatment of flexible PVC[J]. Material Science Forum,2009,610-613:165-170.
LIU L,WU W H,XUE H H,et al. A series of metal molybdates flame-retardants and smoke suppressants for flexible PVC[J]. Advanced Materials Research,2013,634-638:1881-1885.
QU H Q,WU W H,XIE J X,et al. Zinc hydroxystannate-coated metal hydroxides as flame retardant and smoke suppression for flexible poly vinyl chloride[J]. Fire and Material,2009,33(4):201-210.
张乐,丁雪佳,刘佳,等. 阻燃软质PVC的性能研究[J].弹性体,2014,24(3):15-18. ZHANG L,DING X J,LIU J,et al. Research on the flame retardant properties of soft PVC[J]. China Elastomerics,2014,24(3):15-18.
徐建林,张亮,周生刚,等.表面改性剂对球磨法制备纳米Sb2O3粉末的影响[J].稀有金属材料工程,2014,43(12):3003-3007. XU J L,ZHANG L,ZHOU S G,et al. Influences of surface modification agent on the preparation of nano-Sb2O3 by the method of ball milling[J]. Rare Metal Materials Engineering,2014,43(12):3003-3007.
何崇智,张志军,李艳萍. 多相全谱拟合无标量定量分析[J]. 物理测试,2011,29(7):170-174. HE C Z,ZHANG Z J,LI Y P. Non scalar quantitative analysis of multi-phase full spectrum[J]. Physics Examination and Testing,2011,29(7):170-174.
刘贺.浅谈非离子表面活性剂的特点与应用[J].皮革与化工,2012,29(2):20-29. LIU H. Discussion about the features and applications of non-ionic surfactants[J]. Leather and Chemicals,2012,29(2):20-29.
冯莉,刘炯天,廖立勇,等. 单分散纳米氧化锑的研制[J].化工学报,2005,56(11):2245-2250. FENG L,LIU J T,LIAO L Y,et al. Preparation of monodispersed Sb2O3 nanoparticles[J]. Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering,2005,56(11):2245-2250.
许仪,薛永强,崔子祥,等. 粒度对纳米氧化镍化学反应平衡常数的影响[J]. 太原理工大学学报,2010,41(4):345-348. XU Y,XUE Y Q,CUI Z X,et al. Effect of the particle size of nano-NiO reaction equilibrium constant[J]. Journal of Taiyuan University of Technology,2010,41(4):345-348.
叶建东,肖峰,王秀鹏,等. 十二烷基硫酸钠在化学沉淀法合成羟基磷灰石粉体中的防团聚作用[J]. 功能材料,2005,36(10):1594-1596. YE J D,XIAO F,WANG X P,et al. Role of sodium dodecyl sulfate in de-agglomeration of hydroxyapatite powder synthesized by chemical precipitation method[J]. Journal of Function Material,2005,36(10):1594-1596.